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基思·亨尼西(Hennessey)的博客

美国前国家经济委员会主任、乔治·布什的首席经济顾问Keith Hennessey

 
 
 

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美国前国家经济委员会主任

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一个资深幕僚在白宫西侧厅的职业生涯  

2009-06-03 10:16:34|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 我说过将写下在白宫西侧厅我是如何工作的。在那里工作了六年多后,那些日程的细节对我来说似乎已不再具有吸引力,但是朋友们的谈话告诉我,即使是那些日常的工作流程对于一些读者来说,也可能是饶有趣味的。

 我得承认,每个总统任期内的政府都是不一样的,它反映了当任总统的性格特征和管理方式,这是理所当然的。我曾极为荣幸地在两名领导(安迪·卡德和约书亚·伯顿)的手下服务于一个总统(乔治·W·布什),时间从2002年八月到2009年一月。我并不认为奥巴马政府应该以我们的方式去工作,也不认为我们的方式更好。我仅仅为那些可能关注这些的人们描述一下我们是如何工作的。所以对于所有有线-卫星公共事务电视网的关注者和白宫西侧厅的观察者们来说,这是一个关于白宫(第43任总统布什)工作机制的序篇。

受委任的政府官员们

 白宫的职员们被分为两组:受委任的政府官员们和其他人。从技术角度而言,一名受委任的政府官员服务于总统,而工作于白宫的其他人则服务于这名被委任的官员。受委任的政府官员们又分为三个等级:从最高级别的开始,分别为:

  1. 总统助理(AP)
  2. 总统助理副手(DAP),别名“副手”
  3. 总统助理专员(SAP),别名“专员”或“SAPS”

在任何特定时间内,我们都有大约20个总统助理, 偶尔会有些变动。这里是一些例子:

  • 总统助理和官员首长:约书亚·伯顿
  • 总统助理和官员副首长:卡尔·罗夫
  • 总统助理和总统顾问:爱德·吉利斯派
  • 总统助理和新闻秘书:丹娜·派瑞诺
  • 总统助理和法律顾问:弗莱德·菲尔丁
  • 总统立法事务助理:丹·梅尔
  • 总统经济政策与指导助理,国家经济顾问:凯斯·亨尼斯

我们每一个人都是总统的一个助手。在正式场合,他是我们的老板,我们这些大约20个左右的总理助手们直接对总统报告。请注意不是所有的总统助手们都是平等的。在公务上,有一个官员首长比其他官员的级别要高,同时我们还有两个官员副首长。在少数情况下,一个总统助理会向另一个总统助理汇报——例如在国家安全委员会中,#1和#2的人们都是总统助理的级别。在非公开场合,一些总统助理会比其他人具有更多的实际影响力,正如你在任何组织中所看到的一样。

每一个总统助理负责白宫事务中的一个部分,并且要求被委任的政府官员及非委任的官员们向他或她报告。国家经济委员会(NEC)会有1.5个总统助理副手(我一会儿会解释0.5人的原因)和4到6个总统助理专员。比如,在2006年我们在NEC有:

  • 经济政策与指导总统助理,NEC委员:AI·哈伯德
  • 经济政策与副指导总统助理,NEC委员:凯斯·亨尼斯
  • 经济政策总统助理专员:恰克·布拉豪斯(社会安全部)
  • 经济政策总统助理专员:朱丽叶·顾恩(健康部)
  • 经济政策总统助理专员:布里安·考佰特(国内金融部)
  • 经济政策总统助理专员:杰森·汤马斯(税收及预算部)
  • 经济政策总统助理专员:汉特·摩尔汉(农业部)

我们也有在其他事务上的独立的专家们(例如技术与电话通讯领域),他们不是被委任的官员。而且我们有8到12个非委任的官员们,大致平均地分布在政策助手与支持人员中。

这些副手和专员们也向总统报告,而且他们从总统那里接受任务(“总统的助理专员”)。不过他们要通过总统助理向总统报告。例如,在总统日程表中的每一项都有一个“项目官员”,他作为一个总统助理对总统当天的事务负责。在实际工作中,副手和专员们做了大量艰辛的基础工作来使时间段的处理更加成功,同时总统助理会监控这一进程并对战略性的问题做出决策。

我在白宫的大部分时间(五年半)是作为NEC的总统助理副手,而且有一年多(2008年)的时间是作为NEC的总统助理。我曾经开玩笑地说:“助手们为总统和决策作出关键的具有战略意义的建议,专员们是专家,副手们让所有事情发生。”白宫的会议经常按照级别而分开来。在我们制定经济政策的过程中,我们经常会有分为三个等级的一系列政策会议:

  •  2007年,经济政策总统助理专员:朱丽叶·顾恩主持了一个政策协调委员会(PCC)会议,参加者是来自内阁的白宫总统助理专员们和助理秘书们。她的会议主要是讨论……
  • ……我主持的一个副手会议(当我还是NEC的副手的时候),是和白宫的副手们和更多的高级部门官员(例如副手秘书们)一起开的。我主持的副手会议室是要讨论……
  • ……一个总统在总统办公室或罗斯福房间参与的政策实践会议,一般是由参加各部首席会议的那些人参与的。

   安迪·卡德过去总是说“与总统共欢笑,共担其时”。这句显然具有代表性的论断强调了相比一个有着各种各样合法保护的文职人员,我们的工作阶段是多么的短暂。白宫的官员们,尤其是那些特殊的被委任的官员们,根本没有正规的工作保障,而且时间是无情的。

与此同时,伴随着一个被委任的官员而来的还有少数的额外津贴:

  • 你得到一个很棒的委任状,由总统和国务卿签署下达。大多数的幕僚会把他们的委任状挂在他们办公室的墙上。那些身负多项委任的人(通常是来自前内阁的人)通常会把全部的委任状都挂在墙上。
  • 被委任的官员们和内阁部长级的官员们,享有在白宫食堂落座的特权。
  • 只有被委任的幕僚可以享受的,由顶级军事人员提供的城市交通服务。

从技术层面上来说,你得到了“尊敬的某某人”的头衔,我不知道有谁真的使用过它,不过一些朋友们和亲戚们会认为它很酷。就法律和组织意义而言,白宫是总统行政部门(EOP)的一个子集。总统行政部门还包括一些不属于白宫但实际上和白宫关系密切的组织。这个大约25个“白宫高级幕僚”的团体中包括:

  • 一共20个左右的总统助理
  • 经济顾问委员会的主席(2008年是艾迪·雷泽亚)
  • 管理和预算部部长(2008年是吉姆·纳赛尔)
  • 环境质量委员会主席(吉姆·康纳顿在职八年)
  • 科学与技术政策部部长(杰克·马博格在职八年)

尽管20个总统助理和其他的四个人有一些细小的差别,但这些差别的确非常的细微。实际上,这个大约25个人的团队组成了白宫的高级幕僚,他们向总统报告并直接辅助总统做一些日常事务。

我发现很少有人知道白宫高级官员的这个最基础的阶梯式的结构,这太有趣了!而且,我在国会山工作了七年多,却对这个结构一无所知,直到我进入了白宫。你应该记住,当你在电视上或媒体见面会中看见一个白宫职员(在职的或正式的),仔细地勘他们的头衔。如果它是“----总统助理”,那么你就知道他们是(或曾经是)白宫“高级官员”,有着巨大的影响力。如果你看到的是“总统助理副手”,那么就低了一级,如果是“总统助理专员”,那就低了两级了。不要误会——副手们和专员们也能有巨大的力量和影响力的。但是我们这些“同行们”总是留心奥巴马政府里“谁是——副手”或“谁得到了——专员工作”,而且我们会把这些等级记在心里来观察和分析奥巴马政府的决策—制定结构。

 (翻译纠错。读者发现任何翻译错误请发邮件给我们,谢谢:caijingblog#126.com 将#改为@)


英文原文(地址:http://keithhennessey.com/2009/05/29/senior-staff/):

I promised I would write about what it’s like to work in the West Wing of the White House. After more than six years of working there, the process details seem less than fascinating to me, but conversations with friends suggest that even routine process explanations might be interesting to some readers.

I should qualify this by acknowledging that each White House is different, reflecting both the character and the management style of the particular President. I was tremendously privileged to work for one President (George W. Bush) under two Chiefs of Staff (Andy Card and Joshua Bolten), from August of 2002 through January of 2009.  I do not argue that the Obama White House should do things the way that we did, or that our way was better.  I am merely describing how we did it for those who might care.   So for all you CSPAN junkies and West Wing watchers, here is the first in a series of posts about some process mechanics of working in the West Wing of the (Bush 43) White House.

Commissioned Officers

White House staff can be divided into two groups:  commissioned officers, and everyone else.  As a technical matter, a commissioned officer works for the President, and everyone else in the White House works for a commissioned officer.  There are three levels of commissioned officers.  Starting with the most senior, they are:

  1. Assistant to the President (AP)
  2. Deputy Assistant to the President (DAP), aka “Deputies”
  3. Special Assistant to the President (SAP), aka “Specials” or “SAPs”

We had about 20 AP’s at any given time, with a little fluctuation.  Here are some examples:

  • Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff Joshua Bolten
  • Assistant to the President and Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove
  • Assistant to the President and Counselor to the President Ed Gillespie
  • Assistant to the President and Press Secretary Dana Perino
  • Assistant to the President and Counsel to the President Fred Fielding
  • Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs Dan Meyer
  • Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Director, National Economic Council Keith Hennessey

to the President.  As a formal matter, he was our boss, and we 20 or so AP’s were his direct reports.  Note that not all AP’s are equal.  As a formal matter there’s a Chief of Staff who is senior to all other staff, and we had two Deputy Chiefs of Staff as well.  In a few cases, there was an AP reporting to an AP — at the National Security Council, the #1 and #2 people both had AP rank.  And as an informal matter, some AP’s have more practical impact than others, as you might expect in any organization.

Each AP runs part of the White House staff, and has commissioned officers and non-commissioned staff reporting to him or her.  The National Economic Council (NEC) had 1.5 deputies (I’ll explain the .5 another time) and 4-6 Specials.  As an example, in 2006 we had at the NEC:

  • AP for Economic Policy and Director, NEC Al Hubbard
  • DAP for Economic Policy and Deputy Director, NEC Keith Hennessey
  • SAP for Economic Policy Chuck Blahous (Social Security)
  • SAP for Economic Policy Julie Goon (Health)
  • SAP for Economic Policy Bryan Corbett (Domestic Finance)
  • SAP for Economic Policy Jason Thomas (Tax & Budget)
  • SAP for Economic Policy Hunter Moorhead (Agriculture)

We also had substantive experts on other issues (e.g., Technology and Telecommunications) who were not commissioned officers.  And we had 8-12 noncommissioned staff, split about evenly between policy aides and support staff.

The Deputies and Specials also technically report to the President, and they get their commissions from the President (”Special Assistant to the President“).  They report to him through an AP, however.  As an example, every item on the President’s schedule had a “project officer” who was an AP that was formally responsible for that segment of the President’s day.  As a practical matter, the Deputies and Specials did much of the spade work to make that time segment successful, with the AP overseeing the process and working on strategic issues.

I spent most of my White House time (5 1/2 years) as the NEC Deputy, and a bit over a year (2008) as the NEC AP.  I used to joke that “Assistants make the key strategic recommendations to the President and decisions, Specials are the experts, and Deputies make everything happen.”  White House meetings would often segment by level.  In our economic policy development process, we would often have a series of policy meetings at three levels:

  • In 2007, SAP for Economic Policy Julie Goon (Health) would chair a Policy Coordinating Committtee (PCC) meeting (or three) of White House SAPs and Assistant Secretaries from Cabinet Agencies.  Julie’s meetings would tee issues up for …
  • … a Deputies meeting that I would chair (when I was the NEC Deputy), with White House Deputies and more senior Agency staff (like Deputy Secretaries) attending (as well as Julie).  My deputies meeting would tee issues up for …
  • … a Principals meeting that the NEC AP would chair (in this example, Al Hubbard), with White House AP’s and Cabinet Secretaries (e.g., Secretary of Health and Human Services Mike Leavitt and Budget Director Jim Nussle) attending.  Julie and I would also attend, since it was an NEC meeting.  The Principals meeting would tee issues up for …
  • … a Policy Time meeting with the President in the Oval Office or the Roosevelt Room, generally attended by the same people who attended the Principals meeting.

Andy Card always used to say that White House staff work “at the pleasure of the President, and for the time being.”  This apparently repetitive statement was intended to emphasize how ephemeral our employment status was, in contrast to, for instance, a career civil servant with all sorts of legal protections.  White House staff, and in particular commissioned officers, have no formal job security.  And the hours are brutal.

At the same time, there are a few perks that come with being a commissioned officer:

  • You get a nice commission, signed by the President and the Secretary of State.  Most staff would hang their commision on their office wall.  Those with multiple commissions (often from prior Administrations) would generally hang all of them.
  • White House Mess sit-down privileges are for commissioned officers and Cabinet-rank officials.
  • The in-town transportation service, run by top-notch Army personnel, is available only for commissioned staff.
  • Technically, you get the title “The Honorable John Doe.”  I don’t know anyone who actually used this, but some friends and relatives think it’s cool.

As a legal and organizational matter, the White House is a subset of the Executive Office of the President (EOP).  The Executive Office of the President also includes some organizations that are not part of the White House, but are close to the President in a physical and practical way.  So the grouping of about 25 “White House Senior Staff” includes:

  • All 20-ish Assistants to the President
  • The Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers (Eddie Lazear in 2008)
  • The Director of the Office of Management and Budget (Jim Nussle in 2008)
  • The Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (Jim Connaughton for eight years!)
  • The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (Jack Marburger for eight years)

There are some minor differences between the 20 AP’s and the other four, but they are truly minor.  As a practical matter, this group of about two dozen comprises the White House senior staff that report to and directly assist the President on a daily basis.

I found it interesting how few people understand this most basic tiered structure of the senior White House staff.  Then again, I worked on Capitol Hill for more than seven years, and had no idea about this structure until I moved into the White House.  What you should remember is that when you see a (current or former) White House staffer on TV or in the press, look carefully at their title.  If it says “Assistant to the President for ______,” then you know they are (or were) White House “senior staff,” with a tremendous amount of influence.  If you see “Deputy Assistant to the President,” you’ve stepped down one tier, and “Special Assistant to the President,” you have stepped down two tiers.  Don’t get me wrong — Deputies and SAPs can be tremendously powerful and influential.  But we alumni are always keeping track of “Who’s the ________ Deputy” or “Who got the ________ SAP job” in the Obama White House, and we have these tiers in mind as we observe and analyze the Obama White House decision-making structure.

  [点击查看Keith Hennessey的英文博客]  [Keith Hennessey的中文博客]  

 

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